To goad is to provoke someone into doing something, usually for your benefit of some kind. During a combat sport, such a tactic is used to throw the opponent off and to make their next move predictable which makes them easier to counter.
In the real world, it is playing to their emotions to make them make a move first. When it comes to arguments, attempting to goad someone automatically throws out your argument of self defense as it is considered provocation. Usually people do this so they can play the victim in order to also have a moral victory. Regardless, you can be seen as the aggressor when you do this.